Chemical Classification Overview
There are various ways chemicals are categorized in to a number of categories based on their applications, their hazardous nature and their origin of production. Here are the various categories of chemicals, and the specific applications they are each grouped by.
Categories of Chemicals:
The term "adhesive" refers to any substance capable of holding materials together in a functional manner by surface adhesion that is resistant to dissociation. The most significant constituent in synthetic adhesive chemistry is a polymer, which determines the adhesive's mechanical and physical properties.
Pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and fertilisers are examples of agricultural chemicals that are used to control pests and disease, as well as to control and encourage growth.
3. Cement & Concrete/Chemical Admixtures:
Chemical admixtures are additives to concrete that are added to the mix before or during the mixing process, in addition to portland cement, water, and aggregate.
Cement and Concrete Industry
A collector is a chemical that binds to the surface of target minerals and provides hydrophobicity to those minerals, which is required for air bubble attachment. Collectors are divided into three types: nonionic, anionic, and cationic. In the process of froth flotation, they are employed as reagents.
To kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, mould, or mildew, disinfectants are chemical agents that are applied to non-living substances.
Many processing steps in the manufacture of electronic components and products, including silicon wafers and integrated circuits, packaging and printed circuit boards (PCBs), compound semiconductors and optoelectronics, and flat panel display products, use a diverse range of highly sophisticated specialty chemicals.
Electroplating Chemicals are used to coat various metals on a component in order to improve its physical characteristics. Improved wear resistance and decreased corrosion susceptibility are two of the features.
8. Flocculants Chemicals:
Flocculants are chemicals that help tiny particles in a solution clump together to form a floc, which either floats to the top (flotation) or settles to the bottom (settling) (sedimentation). This is therefore easier to extract from the liquid. Flocculants are used to treat water in mineral extraction and in flotation processes.
Oil and gas industry operations include drilling, cementing, completion, stimulation and production, all of which need the usage of a wide range of chemical compounds and materials.
Oil and Gas Industry
It includes a wide range of products, including premium cosmetics, fragrances, and beauty products as well as toiletries, OTC medications and home cleaning and laundry supplies.
Mining chemicals are special chemicals that are used in the process of Mining and extraction of different ores. The most popular mining is Gold Mining in which various chemicals are incorporated throughout the process of extraction.
A substance that has an effect on the characteristics of another substance or biological function.
Paper and pulp chemicals are a class of chemicals that are used in the production of paper or to alter the characteristics of paper. To make pulp, cellulose fibres from wood, fibre crops, waste paper, or rags are chemically or physically extracted. These compounds can be used to change the colour and brightness of the paper, as well as increase its strength and resistance to water.
Paper and Pulp Industry
Hardeners, catalysts, stabilisers including phenol or amines, blowing agents, lubricants, colours, fungicides, bactericides, and solvents are examples of these additions. Polyethylene (PE), Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC), Polystyrene (PS), and Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are the most commonly produced polymers.
Polymers can be thought of as a chain of interconnected paperclips. A polymer is a big molecule that is composed of smaller, joined-together molecules known as monomers. Various polymer applications include clothing, floor coverings, waste disposal bags, and packaging. Polymer uses in the industrial sector include automobile components, fighter plane windshields, pipelines, tanks, packaging materials, insulation, wood replacements, adhesives, matrix for composites, and elastomers.
Pharmaceutical compounds are specifically intended to create a class of compounds used for health or medicinal purposes. They act on living cells, posing a unique risk when they enter, remain, and spread in the environment. Pharmaceutical compounds are widely utilized by people and in food production across the world.
Rubber Chemicals are industrial chemicals that are used in the manufacture of a variety of rubber products. Rubber chemicals are used throughout the manufacturing process to improve the elasticity, strength, durability, hardness, flexibility, and wear resistance of a product.
A wide range of textile chemical products include from highly specialised chemicals such as biocides and flame retardants to relatively simple commodities such as bleaches or combinations thereof, including starch, sulfonated oils, waxy materials and certain surfactants.
Water Treatment Chemicals are the chemicals used in the water purification process. Among the four primary methods utilised in water treatment systems are the boiler water treatment, cooling-water treatment, the water purification process, and the waste-water effluent treatment process.
20. Food Chemicals:
A food additive is any of a variety of chemical compounds that are added to foods to create certain desired effects. As far back as olden times, there have been people who have used salt, spices, and sulfites to preserve food and make it more palatable.
How Chemicals are produced?
Chemical manufacturing manufactures products by utilising chemical processes to convert organic and inorganic raw materials. Chemicals are divided into two categories: commodity chemicals and speciality chemicals. Commodity chemical producers create huge amounts of basic and relatively affordable chemicals in big factories, which are frequently constructed especially to generate a single chemical. Commodity factories are frequently run constantly, with just a few weeks of downtime each year for maintenance.
Manufacturers of specialty-batch or performance chemicals create smaller volumes of more expensive chemicals on an "as required" basis for less commonly used compounds.
- A specific product is frequently produced by only one or a small number of vendors.
- In contrast to commodity chemical production, batch manufacturing necessitates frequent changes in raw materials, methods, operating conditions, and equipment to meet the demands of consumers.
- Massive volumes of chemical products are usually sold inside the chemical industry and to other industries before becoming consumer goods. For instance, ethanoic acid is sold to produce esters, much of which is then sold to make paints, which are then sold to consumers. Large amounts of ethene are carried as a gas by pipeline throughout Europe. These are sold to corporations that manufacture polymers such as poly (ethene).These are then sold to producers of plastic components before being purchased by the end user.
- Many technical advances have occurred in the manufacture of chemicals from petroleum (and increasingly from coal and biomass), as well as the creation of extremely large production facilities across the world.
- The hydrocarbons in crude oil and gas, which are mostly straight chain alkanes, are separated first utilising variations in boiling point as part of the distillation process.
- They are subsequently transformed into more valuable hydrocarbons for the chemical industry, such as branched chain alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Cracking and associated refinery processes are studied under these operations.
In Chemical Engineering, the Fundamentals Inorganic chemicals are low-cost chemicals used in industry and agriculture. They are manufactured in massive quantities, some in the millions of tonnes per year, and include chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric and nitric acids, and fertiliser compounds. Almost all petrochemical and chemical product manufacturing units are single product continuous processing plants. Not all petrochemical or commodity chemical compounds are manufactured in a single place, but groupings of related materials are frequently manufactured in a single location to promote industrial symbiosis as well as material, energy, and utility efficiency, and other economies of scale.
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